Historians disagree about the invention of the bicycle, and many dates are challenged. It is most likely that no individual qualifies as the inventor and that the bicycle evolved through the efforts of many. Although Leonardo da Vinci was credited with having sketched a bicycle in 1492 in his Codex Atlanticus, the drawing was discovered to be a forgery added in the 1960s. Another presumed bicycle ancestor, the vélocifère, or célérifère, of the 1790s was a fast horse-drawn coach that is not considered to be a predecessor of the bicycle.
Draisiennes, hobby-horses, and other velocipedes
The first two-wheeled rider-propelled machine for which there is indisputable evidence was the draisienne, invented by Baron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun of Germany. In 1817 he rode it for 14 km (9 miles), and the following year he exhibited it in Paris. Although von Drais called his device
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Definition of auto
(Entry 1 of 3)
Definition of auto (Entry 2 of 3)
Definition of auto- (Entry 3 of 3)
2. any medium through which an impulse is propagated.
1. An excipient or a menstruum; a substance, usually without therapeutic action, used as a medium to give bulk for the administration of medicines.
2. An inanimate substance (for example, food, milk, dust, clothing, instrument) by which or on which an infectious agent passes from an infected to a susceptible host; vehicles consequently act as important sources of infection.
[L. vehiculum, a conveyance, fr. veho, to carry]
An inactive substance that is combined with an active medication to facilitate administration.
Epidemiology An inanimate intermediate in the indirect transmission of a pathogen from a reservoir or infected host to a susceptible host; vehicles include foods, clothing, instruments. Cf Vector Pharmacology An inert carrier or excipient for a therapeutic agent–eg, water, alcohol-containing elixirs or a sweetened syrup, which provides bulk or
What Is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)?
A special purpose vehicle, also called a special purpose entity (SPE), is a subsidiary created by a parent company to isolate financial risk. Its legal status as a separate company makes its obligations secure even if the parent company goes bankrupt.
- An SPV is created as a separate company with its own balance sheet.
- It may be used to undertake a risky venture while reducing any negative financial impact upon the parent company and its investors.
- Alternately, the SPV may be a holding company for the securitization of debt.
For this reason, a special purpose vehicle is sometimes called a bankruptcy-remote entity.
If accounting loopholes are exploited, these vehicles can become a financially devastating way to hide company debt, as seen in 2001 in the Enron scandal.
Understanding the SPV
A parent company creates an SPV to isolate or securitize assets
In a metaphor, the vehicle is the figure of speech itself–that is, the immediate image that embodies or “carries” the tenor (the subject of the metaphor). The interaction of vehicle and tenor results in the meaning of the metaphor.
For example, if you call a person who spoils other people’s fun a “wet blanket,” “wet blanket” is the vehicle and the spoilsport is the tenor.
The terms vehicle and tenor were introduced by British rhetorician Ivor Armstrong Richards in The Philosophy of Rhetoric (1936). Richards emphasized the “tension” that often exists between vehicle and tenor.
In the article “Metaphor Shifting in the Dynamics of Talk,” Lynne Cameron observes that the “multiple possibilities” evoked by a vehicle “are both derived from and constrained by speakers’ experience of the world, their socio-cultural contexts, and their discourse purposes” (Confronting Metaphor in Use, 2008).
See Examples and Observations below. Also see:
A useless strip of white chaf–oh, no, he was guiding the auto car–of white chiffon–or perhaps it was grenadine or tulle–was tied beneath her chin, pretending to hold her bonnet in place.
3 disclosed the belief that in occupying the highest seat in a Rubberneck auto they were travelling the pace that passes all understanding.
Then she faced about and sat still while the Rubberneck auto stopped at the flash of the badge under the coat of the plainclothes man.
At the junction with Kearny Street, Market and Geary Streets intersect like the sides of a sharp-angled letter “V.” They, in the auto, were coming down Market with the intention of negotiating the sharp apex and going up Geary.
All unwitting, Drummond sat beside Catherine, talking settlement work, as the auto, honking methodically and dodging traffic, swung in a wide curve to get around the apex.